目前禁止出口大多数类型的原油的禁令是 授权 in 1975 by President Gerald Ford and intended to create a strategic reserve in the United States in order to reduce reliance on foreign 酸ces. The law was primarily in response to the Arab embargo on oil trade with the U.S. that had taken place only two years earlier and which has been characterized as the “first oil shock”.
当然，除非国际需求足以奖励生产商在美国境外分享产量，否则取消当前的出口禁令毫无意义。让’s look at the facts.
首先，目前正在生产的美国大部分原油包括“轻质原油”硫含量低。但是，美国有很大比例的炼油厂更喜欢重炼，或者“sour”, crude with a sulfur content exceeding 0.5%. These refineries have the ability to refine 轻质原油 but will not because 酸 crude tends to be so much cheaper. This condition should prove to force the price of 轻质原油 to rise if the international market is re-opened as a result of the increased demand.
美国石油生产商与精炼厂之间的这种差异是2000年初大量投资的结果’s by refineries into technology to handle 酸 crude based on the belief that supplies of 轻质原油 were running out even as consumer interest soared. Instead, what happened was that new techniques and new technologies made the production of 轻质原油 from shale more efficient and economical.
Should the export ban be lifted, oil producers in Texas could face huge and attractive demand for their 轻质原油 among refineries abroad that are unable to refine 酸 crude as efficiently. This shot in the arm from foreign demand should sufficiently offset current higher production costs associated with shale extraction.